9 Factors That Make A Picture Book Successful

What makes one picture book a bestseller and another a flop? While there’s no way to predict a bestseller, many of the most successful picture books have some (or all) of these factors:

1.) Illustrations that are colorful, varied and full of movement. Successful picture books surprise the reader by the art on the next page — whether it’s by using an unexpected image for humor, or using a different perspective (looking at something from above rather than below, or close up rather than far away), or using mixed media in ways artists haven’t done before, etc.

(FYI: If you are an author, you’ll be paired with an illustrator by your publisher, so generally authors have no control over this factor. Publishers tend to match lesser known authors with well-known illustrators, hoping to introduce the author to the illustrator’s established audience.)

2.) Lovable, identifiable characters. Kids read picture books to see other kids (or kid-friendly characters) accomplish big things. The typical “try 3 times and then succeed” type of picture book requires the protagonist to fix their own problem, because what we want to tell children is that though they may be small, they can be independent/fix their problems in their own ways.

3.) Universal appeal. Fancy Nancy has taken off because it found something that almost all little girls like to do (play dress up) and turned the book into something as sparkly and fabulous as the activity itself. The illustrations are very distinct, there is glitter throughout the book, and Nancy is even more over-the-top in her dress up choices than the most diva-ish of six-year-olds. There is another level though, than just sparkle and glitter. Externally, Nancy wants to be fabulous, but internally, she just wants her family to play dress up with her and accept her ‘fabulousness.’ (Eventually, they do.)

4.) Humor. Funny picture books that take a new/unique look at something old do wonderfully. For example, in Doreen Cronin and Betsy Lewin’s Duck For President, we saw someone climb through the ranks of government — but that someone was a duck. It was funny, it had jokes for both the parent and the child, and it featured an unlikely but child-friendly candidate for president.

5.) A strong/unique concept. A picture book needs to be layered enough that it makes sense as a fully illustrated book, instead of an easy reader or a short story. The layers come from the internal/emotional problem and the external/physical problem working together, so that when the character is actively working towards one goal, they are unwittingly working towards the other as well. The art also has to give us an additional layer to the story, not just show us renderings of the text.

6.) Pattern and/or repetition. Some books are successful because of a refrain that kids like to hear repeated. For example, Munsch’s Love You Forever has the refrain “I’ll love you forever/I’ll like you for always/As long as I’m living/My baby you’ll be.” It’s sweet, it works throughout the whole book but in a different context, and the meter is perfect. Fun fact: My favorite picture book as a child was Chatty Chipmunk’s Nutty Day by Suzanne Gruber, because of the alliterative refrain, “Chitter chitter chatter, I like nuts!” (I’m not really sure about what that choice says about me as a person.)

7.) Rhyme that’s well-written/necessary. If it’s a rhyming text, the rhyme has to flow smoothly and each line has to further the plot. Sometimes authors are tempted to throw in a line just because it rhymes with “dog” or whatever the previous line is (i.e. “At school today there was a dog/he did not bring himself a log.”) Some concepts do make more sense in rhyme than in prose. For example, if you’re writing a book about a jazz musician, then you can use rhyme to imitate the rhythm of music for your reader.

8.) Interactivity. Some books are more interactive when they’re read to a child. Mo Willem’s Pigeon series is very successful because the child reader is given a task — “Don’t let the pigeon drive the bus.” Then, the pigeon comes in and begs and pleads to be allowed to drive. The child then repeats “Nooooo!” with each questioning from the pigeon, thus becoming a participant in the story.

9.) Re-readability. Because picture books have to be read to the child by the parent and children tend to want the same book read to them over and over again, they have to be something that a parent is going to want to read over 100 times. Part of re-readability is the visual interest in the illustrations, which is why an illustrator will put a small visual subplot (such as the ant slowing stealing food at the picnic) for readers to notice perhaps on the their second or third reading. The other part of re-readability comes from some of the elements above — either a refrain, or humor, or word play.

Take a look at your works-in-progress. Do your picture books have some of these factors?

You can download a free .pdf of this blog post here.

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  • http://georgeshannon.wordpress.com George Shannon-Author

    Hi Tracy,

    This is a great look at why some picture books take flight and others only hover. I must confess that when I first read your post’s title I was afraid your view of “successful” would only relate to sales. Heaven knows we’ve all read many a bestselling picture book that didn’t take flight, but did tap into the adult buyer’s desires rather the child’s. Your references to humor, layers, interaction and connection reminded me of my first and longtime editor, Susan Hirschman, at Greenwillow. She edited some amazing books that danced with interaction. I remember her once saying (paraphrase), “It should be such an enjoyable book they immediately say AGAIN!” That it is a book that lets EXPERIENCE all the elements you listed again land again and again.

    Happy writing…

    • http://tmarchini.wordpress.com Tracy Marchini

      Thanks, George! Very true re: books that may have sold well but not because they appealed to the child. (I can certainly think of a couple ::cough::celebrity picture books::cough:: that weren’t always child-friendly…) I am certainly flattered that my post reminded you of advice from Susan Hirschman. In truth, this post was originally an email that I sent to a publisher client who was interested in starting a picture book line and wanted to know what made one ‘successful.’ And I agree — a child’s “AGAIN!” might be one of the very best measures of a successful picture book!

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  • http://www.alladither.com All Adither

    This is fantastic! Thank you so much for writing it. I have a languishing picture book that I, of course, really like. But I’ll go back to it with your post in mind.

    • http://tmarchini.wordpress.com Tracy Marchini

      Thanks — good luck with the pb!

  • http://carolinebyline.blogspot.com Caroline Starr Rose

    This is wonderful!

    I’m speaking in April at an open to the public SCBWI picture book discussion. Could I use this post as a handout there?

    • http://tmarchini.wordpress.com Tracy Marchini

      Of course, sounds like a fun/interesting event. I’ve uploaded a .pdf you can use – 9 Factors .pdf handout. I’d love to hear how it goes!

      • http://carolinebyline.blogspot.com Caroline Starr Rose

        Thank you!

  • http://www.ishtamercurio.blogspot.com Ishta Mercurio

    I found this post through Nathan Bransford’s blog, and it’s wonderful! I love your emphasis on re-readability, universal appeal, and illustrations that add another level to the story. I’ll be referring back to it often. Thanks!

  • Rosi Hollinbeck

    This full of great reminders all PB writers should keep in mind. I’ll be revisiting some of my manuscripts today with this in mind. This just might help me get out of the slush pile! Thanks.

  • http://crystalroget.blogspot.com Crystal Roget

    Great post, Tracy! Like some of the others, I’ll be using these 9 factors as a checklist against 2 picture books I have in progress. Thanks so much for sharing! :)

  • tanya grove

    Thank you for this compilation of things we should all have learned at one point or another in our efforts to be published. It’s good to have them all listed succinctly for reference.

  • http://kaye47getfitplan.wordpress.com Kaye

    Thanks for the helpful list, Tracy. Why is it that I have learnt these points before, but find it so hard to remember them when I’m writing. I’d better stick them up somewhere so that I can check them when I’m writing. Kaye

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  • http://www.cindypaulblog.blogspot.com Cindy Paul

    As I read your post, I instantly began a mental recollection of all the picture books I enjoyed over the years. This made me quickly count to 9 as I thought about these books and played the matching game. These factors sound simple and straight forward. Somehow seeing them enumerated will make a nice guide to pin up on my wall as I refine my current works in progress. Thanks!

  • http://janetsmart.blogspot.com Janet

    thanks, this is a great list! I write for children and I find that I do my best when writing picture books. I love writing picture books.

  • Sandy Brehl

    Love this post and would like to link to it in a future post on my blog, if you allow.
    Reminded me of notes from Andrea Welch at out October SCBWI retreat- each point is a guide to quality revision.

    • http://tmarchini.wordpress.com Tracy Marchini

      Thanks Sandy! You’re absolutely welcome to link to it. I also have a .pdf in the comments if you’d like to print it out. :)

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  • http://www.mikeormsby.net mike ormsby

    An interesting and helpful post. I’m in discussions with an illustrator at present for a children’s book and this is encouraging advice. Also downloaded the pdf for easy ref. Thank you.

  • http://thecastlesinthesky.wordpress.com Jennifer Young

    Thanks for this list Tracy. I’m definintely sharing it.

  • Ric Dilz-author

    Hi Tracy,
    Just found this article online and very happy I did. I’m writing another picture book and these tips are invaluable. Thanks for taking the time to share these with other authors.

  • Dana Atnip

    Great post, very true! ^_^

    • http://www.tracymarchini.com/ Tracy Marchini

      Thanks Dana!